Реферат на тему Leaning Tower Of Pisa Essay Research Paper

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Leaning Tower Of Pisa Essay, Research Paper

Roman stylistic elements had fused with those from Byzantium; from the Middle East, from the Germans, and other northern tribes. The various combinations of these influences created in Western Europe formed a unique style that acquired the name Romanesque meaning in the manner of Roman. The term Romanesque points to the principal source of the style, the buildings of the Roman Empire. This architectural style that prevailed throughout Europe from the tenth to the mid-twelfth century, even though it persisted until considerably later in certain areas. The term Romanesque points to the principal source of the style, the buildings of the Roman Empire. In addition to the classical elements, however, Romanesque architecture incorporates components of Byzantine and eastern origin. The specific character or the Romanesque style can be understood only in the light of the development of early medieval architecture in the west architecture in the west. Certain of the most characteristic features of Romanesque structures include the massive west fa ade crowned by a tower or by twin towers. Also the complex design of the eastern part housing the sanctuary, the rhythmic alteration of piers and columns in there nave, represent only the advanced stages in a lengthy and a complex formal evolution marked by the considerable trial and error. After the breakdown of the Roman economy and culture, skilled architects and organizations of trained artisans no longer existed. Consequently, attempts at large-scale building usually restricted to churches, produced structures that were often crude and of relatively modest proportions. An outstanding achievement of Romanesque architects was the development of architecture of stone vaulted buildings. A major reason for the development of vaulting was the need to replace the highly flammable wooden roofs of the pre-Romanesque structures. In the later Romanesque style, especially as practiced in France, the use of massive walls and piers as supports for the heavy stone vaults resulted in a typical building plan that treated the entire structure as a complex composed of smaller units called bays. Bays became a characteristic and distinguishing feature of the Romanesque style. Massiveness in stone structures is another major characteristic of Romanesque architectureArchitects of churches during the early 11th century faced a magnitude of problems. The number of the faithful was growing and the old basilica churches of Roman times were not sufficient anymore. Besides this practical reason people were no longer pleased with the simple style of churches, particularly their modest outside. They believed the house of god should be magnificent and admirable. First they had to find a way to make the whole church larger. Today’s France was the center of Romanesque architecture and the birthplace of one of the most beautiful features of medieval architecture, the ambulatory with radiating chapels. The ambulatory is a semicircular aisle curving around the apse that opens out onto small chapels, usually five. These smaller chapels were dedicated to saints and the Madonna. With the invention of the ambulatory, the old solid rear wall of the main apse changed into a gracefully curving open arcade. On the outside these elements resulted in an imposing pyramidal grouping. This whole grouping of architectural forms at the east end of medieval churches is known as the chevet. The first chevet was used during the rebuilding of the abbey church of Saint Martin in Tours just before 1000. In its final form Saint Martin’s was the model for the pilgrimage churches erected (1000-c.1150) along the roads that took medieval pilgrims to the tomb of Saint James at Santiago de Compostela in northern Spain. There were no wars at that time on the European continent and great prosperity allowed the erection of many such churches along the different pilgrimage roads. This type of church features a well-developed chevet, like that of Saint Sernin (1080-1120) in Toulouse, along with a rather lofty two-story nave topped by a barrel vault. Above the high ground-story arcade, twin arches open out into an upper gallery situated above the groin vaults of the side aisles, and thin shafts, rising from the ground to the main barrel vault divided the nave into a series of separate sections or bays.The beautiful interior of Romanesque churches is complimented by imposing exterior, in which towers play an important role. In various countries the towers were built in different ways like. For example in Italy, bell towers or campaniles, were almost always built as a separate structure, as shown by the Leaning Tower of Pisa (1174-1272). In northern Europe towers had been integrated with the main body of the church since pre-Romanesque times. In churches of northern Europe other towers can be found such as stair towers, and lanterns, which are towers crossing over the transept and the nave. They are called lanterns because of the magnificent pools of light, which the windows let in. The epidamy of the Romanesque style was the Burundian abbey of Cluny III completed 1130 and largely destroyed in the early nineteenth century. In its design it uses all forms of Romanesque architecture like the barrel vault (which collapsed in 1120), the chevet and the arcade. The height of the vaulting rose to an amazing 29 meters (96 ft.). The Clerestory above the arcade had each of its bays pierced by three windows that gave the abbey more then the usual amount of light. Different styles of Romanesque art existed at the same time. . Many bear the names of countries or areas around them. The Norman style comes from Normandy and England. They are mostly recognized for the accomplishment of the ribbed vault, which solved the problem of Cluny III with its strained barrel vaults. The ribbed vaults relieved more pressure from the barrel and could be focused on pillars. Another characteristic of Anglo – Norman building was the fact that they did not conform to the Latin cross configuration of a cathedral but had different ground plans.

In Italy where the Romanesque period lasted perhaps the longest stand the crowning achievements of that period in the Piazza del Dumo or Campo dei Miracoli (Field of Miracles). They are the cathedral of Pisa, and the baptistery with marble columns and antique Roman capitals. Also among these two structures, lies one of the most famous example of Pisan Romanesque architecture, the Campanile or more commonly known as the Leaning Tower of Pisa. The tower standing amidst the baptistery and the Cathedral is one of Europe s biggest clich s, though many people don t know much about it. When completion was final in 1350, after almost 200 years of construction, the tower was eight stories tall he eight-story round tower is 55m (180ft) tall and 16 m (52 ft) in diameter at the base. A blind arcade or series of walled-in arches encircles the ground floor. The bell chamber, somewhat smaller in diameter surmounts six additional levels of open galleries, consisting of round arches supported on columns. Although the tower’s ancient bells remain in place, they are no longer rung. A spiral 294-step staircase that leads from the ground floor to the terrace of the seventh colonnade then up to the bell chamber occupies the interior of the tower. The exterior is adorned with fine multicolored marbles and excellent carved work. The doorway, which is especially ornate, features grotesque carvings of animalsSelected by the head officials of Pisa due to the admiration of his work on the city wall, Bonanno was the first to work on the bell tower. Construction on the campanile for the cathedral had begun on August 9th, 1173. The land that Bonanno was instructed to build on was known to be water saturated. Due to the large amount of ground water the cement foundation could only be laid ten feet deep, Bonanno had his doubts about the way it would hold the 14,700 metric tons but went ahead with construction regardless. After a five-year delay in construction starting in 1178 due to war with Florence building resumed. Not even a meter and a half into the 3rd floor a noticeable tilt began to form and after much tribulation Bonanno gave up and abandoned the project.The tower continued to lean further and further. Then in 1234 Benenato another architect surveyed the tower and took over the construction, by this time the top of the third gallery was now raised more than six inches higher on the north side than it was on the south. Benenato planned on using the same method of straightening that Bonanno had failed with, He would simply increase the length of all the balconies and arches on the south side to counter balance the slanting toward the north. Just like before this method had once again failed. Restarting of the works took place in two phases, during which the builders the builders tried to reduce the lean. It is not known which height was reached at the end of the first phase of the resumption, before the intervention of Giovanni di Simone. The second phase of the thirteenth century started probably about the years 1272- 1275 and perhaps consists in the building of four “loggette”. In the sixth “loggetta” some round arch windows for the bells were made. The lean continued to be worrisome, so the Duomo’s Institution, on the 15th March 1298, gave Giovanni Pisano, Guido, who was the son of the dead master Giovanni di Simone and Orsello, the job of sounding the slope. Vasari ascribes the construction of the belfry to Tommaso, who was the son of Andrea Pisano. Due to war disruptions between 1180 and 1318, the tower was fully completed in 1319 and a bell was put on the top floor in 1350.At least 650 years has passed since the beginning of the bell-tower cell, which also has the function of balancing the load. Regarding the tower, it was brought to the designed height of the project (100 arms), and seven bells, all tuned to musical scale, were installed: l’Assunta, il Crocifisso, San Ranieri, la Pasquereccia, Del Pozzetto, laTerza, and il Vespruccio. The bells were regularly rung from the ground using a bell cord. To the 1907-1908 commission this seemed risky and it was decided to avoid the “swinging movement” of the two heavy bells, Crocifisso and dell’Assunta. Of one of the more noteworthy facts of the Leaning Tower Pisa is Galileo s studying of gravity. The story goes that in order to demonstrate to Aristotelian scholars that two balls of different weights fall at the same rate, unlike the theory of Aristotle where it was stated the heavier ball would fall at a faster rate. To prove this contemplation inaccurate Galileo dropped a cannon ball and wooden ball from the top of the Tower of Pisa.This story is apocryphal. While some of his earlier predecessors actually performed this experiment, Galileo did not. However, when Galileo was an old man, one of his students did perform the demonstration to an audience of Aristotelian scholars and found in fact a slight difference in the time the two balls struck the ground. This came as no surprise to Galileo who had already explained the effects of viscosity (wind friction) years before. However the Aristotelian scholars, completely ignorant of the (then new) scientific method, walked away from this demonstration convinced that their old master had been thereby proven correct. The campanile was closed in 1990 to those tourists who wish to climb the 294 stairs to the top because of safety issues concerning the ever-slanting lean. After the closing of the tower work began 2 years later to try to stop the lean to decrease the chances of it toppling over. Currently the tower is declining at about 1/25 of an inch per year. At this rate experts predict that the 14,700 metric ton building will defiantly fall if nothing is done to straighten the lean and support the massive structure. If The Leaning Tower of Pisa does in fact fall Italy will lose its most magnificent example of Romanesque architecture


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